Security vs. Constitutional Rights. The ‘Reale Law’ n. 152 22 May 1975

Mario Riberi

University of Turin
mario.riberi@unito.it

Abstract
During the years from 1969 to 1975 the Italian Judicial system therefore did not possess any specific anti- terrorist laws. However the situation changed with the introduction of the Reale Law in 1975 (Oronzo Reale was the Minister of Justice responsible for the law). This law, n. 152, increased police powers considerably by extending the length an individual could be held in charge and permitting wider recourse to firearms. The legge Reale also banned the wearing of crash helmets at demonstrations, or any other method, which helped to obscure the identity of protestors. The Radical party organized a referendum in 1978 designed to abrogate the law, but the outcome was negative. The law was an example of the speed with which the Italian state responded to the threat of terrorism, but also reversed the directions of the previous five years towards enhanced civil liberties. The Reale law is also an example of democratic dilemma. Indeed the fact that the law remains on the statutes today indicates that it was really about countering the diffuse violence of the 1970s, and the public’s growing fear of a breakdown of law and order, rather than the acts of terrorism specific to the period.

Keywords
Reale Law; Security; Constitutional Rights; Public Order; Democratic Dilemma.

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Security and Freedom in the Strategies of Contrast to Banditry in the Kingdom of Sardinia between XVIII and XIX Century

Matteo Traverso

University of Turin
matteo.traverso@unito.it

Abstract
The analysis of the security / freedom binomial tends to be problematic if referred to a complex and polysemic criminal phenomenon such as banditry. The purpose of this contribution is to analyse the discipline and strategies to counter endemic robbery within the legal system of the Kingdom of Sardinia over the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in order to highlight how that legal experience resolved the relationship between public safety and individual freedom with reference to a type of criminal offence (such as banditry) that was considered one of the most detrimental to social peace.

Keywords
Banditry; Kingdom of Sardinia; Security

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